Trẻ em lựa chọn im lặng khi bị phân biệt và đối xử

12:52 - 09/11/2018

“Cảm nhận về môi trường thiếu tin cậy, chia sẻ và hỗ trợ ở trong gia đình, nhà trường và xã hội của trẻ là những yếu tố tác động tiêu cực đến tình hình phân biệt đối xử với trẻ. Điều này khiến hầu hết các trẻ im lặng, không làm gì cả khi bị phân biệt đối xử”.

Bà Nguyễn Phương Linh, Giám đốc Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Quản lý và Phát triển bền vững (MSD) phát biểu tại Đối thoại chính sách về “Bảo đảm quyền được bảo vệ của trẻ em khỏi các hình thức phân biệt đối xử”. Chương trình do Cục Trẻ em và MSD tổ chức chiều 7/11 tại Hà Nội.

Phân tích về những hành vi vô tình tạo nên sự phân biệt, bà Nguyễn Phương Linh cho rằng: “Trên thực tế, cha mẹ, thầy cô, cộng đồng thường vô tình thực hiện các hành vi phân biệt đối xử trẻ. Đặc biệt là về giới tính, tình trạng khuyết tật, năng lực, hoàn cảnh gia đình…Ví dụ thường thấy là trẻ em trai có thể dễ bị đánh đòn – một hành vi trừng phạt thể chất hơn trẻ em gái, hay trẻ em gái hay bị mắng mỏ nhiều hơn”.

Ngoài ra, nhiều hành vi khác trong xã hội cũng vô tình tạo nên sự phân biệt.

“Đơn giản là trong cuộc sống hàng ngày cha mẹ thầy cô hay so sánh trẻ này với trẻ khác với mong muốn trẻ sẽ noi theo những tấm gương đó, hoặc vì tự ái, mà cố gắng hoàn thiện bản thân cho “bằng bạn bằng bè”, “bằng chị bằng em” mà không biết rằng đó cũng là một hành vi phân biệt đối xử về đặc điểm cá nhân hoặc năng lực trẻ” – bà Nguyễn Phương Linh bổ sung.

Trái với mong muốn của người lớn, hậu quả của việc vô tình tạo nên sự đối xử không công bằng là không nhỏ. Đại diện MSD cho biết, trong nhiều trường hợp, sự so sánh đó của bố mẹ, thầy cô không đem lại hiệu quả về mặt giáo dục mà ngược lại, sẽ khiến trẻ cảm thấy bị tổn thương, tạo ra tâm lý bực tức, giận dỗi, thậm chí là thù ghét cả người so sánh mình lẫn người được lấy ra làm hình mẫu để so sánh với mình.

Để khắc phục thực tế trên, bà Lê Thị Khánh Vân – chuyên gia về trẻ em cho rằng, việc tác động làm thay đổi môi trường xung quanh trẻ cùng những thay đổi trong nhận thức và hành vi của người lớn, sự đồng hành của các nhóm tư vấn trường học có vai trò to lớn nhằm cải thiện tình trạng phân biệt đối xử với trẻ.

“Những gợi ý này cho thấy sự cần thiết phải có những chiến dịch hành động có tác động mạnh mẽ và đồng bộ tới mọi môi trường xung quanh trẻ hướng tới việc đảm bảo sự công bằng trong đối xử với trẻ” – bà Lê Thị Khánh Vân cho biết.

Đồng quan điểm trên, bà Nguyễn Thị Nga – Phó cục trưởng Cục Trẻ em cho rằng: “Quyền được bảo vệ của trẻ em khỏi các hình thức phân biệt đối xử đã được ghi nhận trong Công ước của Liên hợp quốc về Quyền trẻ em”.

Trong hệ thống pháp luật VN, không thiếu các quy định đã đề cập, cụ thể: Điều 16, Hiến pháp Việt Nam 2013 và Bộ luật Dân sự (sửa đổi) năm 2015 cũng cho thấy rõ rằng bình đẳng và không phân biệt đối xử là một trong những nguyên tắc cơ bản, quan trọng của pháp luật Việt Nam.

“Đặc biệt, Luật Trẻ em năm 2016 (Khoản 8, Điều 6) nghiêm cấm hành vi kỳ thị, phân biệt đối xử với trẻ em vì đặc điểm cá nhân, hoàn cảnh gia đình, giới tính, dân tộc, quốc tịch, tín ngưỡng, tôn giáo của trẻ em” – bà Nguyễn Thị Nga cho biết.

Trên cơ sở đó, đai diện Cục trẻ em tại Hội nghị mong muốn được phối hợp với các cơ quan nhà nước, nhà trường, các tổ chức xã hội, các cơ quan truyền thông để truyền thông, giáo dục cộng đồng tốt hơn nữa trong việc thực hiện và giám sát việc thực hiện quyền trẻ em, bảo vệ trẻ em khỏi các hình thức phân biệt đối xử.

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